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Essay collection on European unification in Central Europe 1989/2004 and beyond

Simone Klee / IEP
Simone Klee / IEP

Several essays examine different perspectives from countries in Central Europe on the process of European unification after 1989 and 2004. In addition they discuss how we can commemorate the successes of democratic reforms and EU enlargement today.

The essay collection reminds and invites us to think about the legacy, aspirations and hopes that were connected to democratization and European integration. It is worth to revisit a common European heritage and to assess what we can learn from democratic revolutions in 1989 and 2004 to move forward to build a better European future.

The contributions are collected from the project consortium of the EUritage Project and edited by Adam Balcer. The essays present different national perspectives on the events selected perspective connected to 1989 and EU Enlargement in 2004 and discuss their relevance, meaning and impact today. The collection also includes the project’s two winning student essays that reflect on how the years of 1989 and 2004 in Central Europe impacted their lives


Everything started in Gdańsk | Aleksandra Dulkiewicz

Central Europe in the European Union and beyond. Legacy of 1989 and 2004 | Adam Balcer

Hungary at the crossroads: challenges of democratic backslide and Euroscepticism | István Hegedűs

The history of post-communism in a nutshell: Czechia after 1989 | Michal Klíma

Unified but different? Assessment of the benefits and costs of German reunification | Katrin Boettger and Simone Klee

Central Europe, the EU and I | Marie Kepler

The breakthrough moments of 1989 and 2004 – how freedom brought us Wrocław back | Tomasz Kubiak

Team & authors

About the EUritage: A European Success Story project: The project raises awareness among young Europeans of the democratic revolutions in Central Europe and the accession of this region to the EU and discusses the relevance of these events for a European culture of remembrance.

Image copyright: Simone Klee / IEP