SEnECA Blog Post: Three main problems in countering extremism and terrorism in Central Asia

Terrorism-related issues are highly politi­cized and securi­tized in Kazakhstan and in Central Asia in general. Whereas it is necessary for the govern­ments to maintain stability and national security, counter-terrorism efforts sometimes undermine the state’s credi­bility.

There are three main problems with counter-terrorism efforts in Central Asia. The first, and most signif­icant, problem is the legal framework that regulates this sphere. Laws on terrorism are almost the same in all five countries and they all are filled with vague termi­nology. As a result, the govern­ments use this vagueness to strengthen their monopoly on the use of force. Because the wording of the laws on countering extremism is vague, it allows the government to use the law on a case-by-case basis to punish opposition activists. In addition, the govern­ments have created a narrative of fear by using these legal traps to strengthen the state’s monopoly on the use of force. As a result, the security services prosecute ‚potential‘ ISIS sleeper cells or supporters, in particular in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Despite all the efforts to fight online terrorism, the Central Asian govern­ments have not managed to stop terrorists from using the internet to plan their activ­ities. Rather, the govern­ments’ approach to counter extremism has so far resulted in limita­tions and viola­tions of civil liberties.

The second problem is that Central Asian countries prefer to cooperate on countert­er­rorism with non-regional actors, e.g. the United States, the EU, Russia, Turkey and others, or within the UN, OSCE, the Collective Security Treaty Organi­zation, the Shanghai Cooper­ation Organi­zation, rather than establish intra-regional dialogue to address this issue properly, especially with Afghanistan. 2018 field trip to Kabul and meetings with high-level officials reinforced the absence of cross border cooper­ation with the Afghan security forces on travel of terrorists, as Central Asians are not ready to collab­orate daily with their Afghan counter­parts.

Recent special opera­tions focusing on bringing foreign terrorist fighters, including women and children from Syria back to the region in 2019 (Kazakhstan, Uzbek­istan and Tajik­istan) were the result of successful cooper­ation with big powers rather than a regional decision. A well-estab­lished dialogue on terrorism and extremism issues should be estab­lished, as it will result in a better approach towards infor­mation sharing, borders and profiling. Additionally, this will help address the threats that might arise from the Afghan terrorist groups.

The third problem has to do with the govern­ments’ (non)communication about terrorist threats. Whereas the level of terrorism threat is relatively low, regional govern­ments do not commu­nicate with the public in case of an actual threat of a terrorist attack, forgetting the main audience and leaving it behind when an incident occurs. As a result, it is extremely difficult to counter terrorism in non-democ­ratic societies, where everyday commu­ni­cation between the government agencies and the public is minimal. The lack of trust between both sides poses a great challenge for improving these relations. The absence of alter­native and/or independent media makes this task even more difficult.

Strength­ening the legit­imate use of force to ensure domestic security is necessary, yet the Central Asian govern­ments’ current approach demon­strates a major imbalance in the citizens’ civil liberties and security. In Central Asia, where political rights and civil liberties, in particular freedom of (online) expression, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion, have been signif­i­cantly limited for the sake of stability, social media has also been manip­u­lated by the govern­ments. People across the region are now being arrested for posting, sharing or ‘liking’ polit­i­cally, nationally or religiously “incorrect” or sensitive content on social media on the pretext of countering extremism. Citizens’ unawareness and lack of knowledge when it comes to behavior during terrorist attack and what extremism is and what is not are also of great impor­tance. Along with the missing commu­ni­cation on potential threats, it is also necessary to educate people, commu­nicate with them and inform them in a timely manner which actions are appro­priate, and which are not.

These and other relevant issues should be further explored during the imple­men­tation phase of the new EU Strategy on Central Asia, which outlines ad hoc measures on countering violent extremism challenges in Central Asia in order to create resilient societies across borders.

SEnECA blog contri­bution by Anna Gussarova, Director of the Central Asia Institute for Strategic Studies (CAISS) in Almaty, Kazakhstan