Issue 2/2019 of integration

Barbara Lippert examines the different models of relationship of the EU with its neighbours and shows new forms for future cooperation and association. Christian Calliess also takes the future of the EU into consideration and pleads for a more flexible working method to reach a more constructive cooperation between the member states. Daniel Schade critically analyses the role of the Interparliamentary Conference for the CFSP/CSDP for stronger parliamentary control within this policy area. Taking into account the EU’s paradigm shift towards China and the leading role of the US in investment screening policies, Jörn-Carsten Gottwald, Joachim Schild und Dirk Schmidt look at the recent development of the EU investment control regime. The issue also contains a forum article by Friederike Augustin and Jana Schubert summarizing the ideas of young Europeans for the future of the EU as first presented in the #EngagEU Manifesto as well as the discussion of these ideas during the #1stYoungCitizens’Convention. Anne Wetzel reviews two publications on the European Neighbourhood Policy.

The EU and its Neighbourhood Relations: Established Association Models and New Basic Forms

Barbara Lippert

In this article, the author presents established models of association of the European Union (EU) with European third countries. She shows their different strategic perspectives, outlines benefits and problems, and examines the potential for developing these relations. Basically, these can go in the direction of expanding or dismantling partial sectoral integration. In addition, new basic forms of EU neighbourhood relations are discussed: the introduction of a new status of partial membership in the EU and – inspired by the European Economic Area – the creation of a European political and economic area.

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Future Scenarios and Reform Options for the European Union: From the Commission’s White Paper to a More Flexible Working Method

Christian Calliess

Tackling the ongoing European ‘polycrisis’ has been complicated by the lack of a consensus between the Member States and among European citizens about the role they want the European Union (EU) to play, its tasks and its future. A Union that has become more diverse due to enlargement now has to deepen in areas that are highly sensitive domestically. Against the backdrop of the scenarios presented in the European Commission’s White Paper on the Future of Europe the author argues for a more flexible working method of the EU. This method should be based on more efficiency by focusing on political priorities and implementing a new concept of cooperative enforcement together with a common understanding of subsidiarity. Where no consensus can be reached greater flexibility and – in the long run – a new architecture of the EU should allow for pioneer groups to move ahead and to lead by positive example.

Parliamentary Control Through Interlinkages? A Critical Analysis of the Role of the Interparliamentary Conference for the CFSP/CSDP

Daniel Schade

The Interparliamentary Conference for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Common Security and Defence Policy (IPC) is a new parliamentary body set up after the Treaty of Lisbon which allows to create interlinkages between parliaments in the European Union (EU). It is part of an ongoing process which aims to challenge the executive dominance in EU policy-making in general and in the EU’s foreign and security policy in particular. Considering its sessions and the experiences of members of parliaments partaking in the Interparliamentary Conference to date, this article analyses its value-added to this overarching goal. The experiences so far suggest that the IPC faces significant practical challenges in contributing to the parliamentary scrutiny of the policy areas concerned despite the fact that the format of interparliamentary gatherings is a significant innovation in its own right. These challenges arise primarily out of a conflict between the European Parliament and national parliaments in the EU, the diversity of national parliamentarism, as well as the differing motivations and skills of the participating members of parliaments.

The End of Naivety in EU-China Policies? The Reform of the European Investment Control Regime

Jörn-Carsten Gottwald, Joachim Schild and Dirk Schmidt

The European Union (EU) has introduced measures to better screen investments from third countries, in particular by enterprises and state actors of the People’s Republic of China. These measures highlight the profound change in bilateral relations which have turned from “strategic partnership” into “systemic rivalry”. Reacting to new Chinese policies of foreign trade and investment, the EU followed a revision of investment screening policies in the US. The EU has overcome deep splits among member states and established a new legal Framework at the supranational level that leaves the ultimate screening and decision-making power to the national level. This paper identifies the changes in Chinese investment and investment policies and highlights key contents of the US legislation on investment control before discussing the new EU framework. It interprets the new measures as further examples of an increased reliance on state policies instead of market forces – by all partners involved.

Vision or Utopia? Young Ideas for the Future of Europe

Friederike Augustin and Jana Schubert

Although most of the first-time voters and young citizens of the European Union (EU) share a positive attitude towards the EU, less than 30 percent cast their votes in the European elections of 2014. Against this backdrop, this year’s European election campaigns particularly focused on young people aged 15 to 24. In that sense, the youth participation project #EngagEU aimed at motivating young people to vote in the European elections 2019 and at empowering them to formulate concrete political demands. Summarised in the manifesto “Young Ideas for the Future of Europe”, their ideas were presented to the public as well as to Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier on 30 April 2019 at the #1stYoungCitizens’Convention organised by the Institut für Europäische Politik and discussed with young candidates for the European elections. Technology-based solutions to combat climate change and an independent monitoring capacity for EU values and democratic principles are concrete demands that political decision-makers might take up in the aftermath of the European elections.


Anne Wetzel

15 Jahre Europäische Nachbarschaftspolitik – eine Bestandsaufnahme

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