integration 2/2013

The president of the European Parliament, Martin Schulz, frames his vision of a modular EU foreign policy in the current issue of integration. Consid­ering the recent crises in Africa, the devel­opment of the CFSP/CSDP is analysed from an academic point of view. Further, the role of Germany as a hegemon in the debt crisis and the European Arctic strategy are highlighted. In addition, two reports deal with the first German-Portuguese Forum as well as with European foreign policy.

Testing the European Union’s Security and Defence Policy: Between Pretension and Reality

Hans-Georg Ehrhardt

This contri­bution assesses the evolution of CFSP/CSDP after the Lisbon Treaty by looking at the EU as a crisis manager in Somalia, Syria and Mali. The experi­ences in these crises elucidate that the European Union is still far away from achieving its goal of an effective and convincing foreign and security policy. The much tooted ‘compre­hensive approach’ exists rather on paper than in reality. In Syria this approach has not yet had the chance of being imple­mented, in Mali it exists only on paper, in Somalia it has been imple­mented merely additively. In all three cases, Paris and London led from the front by diplo­matic and military means and influ­enced the inter­na­tional agenda. Thus, an approach is emerging where some partners push things forward and the rest follows more or less eagerly. In the end, they clean up together. The only question is: what is the long-term effect?

The Fiscal Stability Treaty – an Expression of German Hegemony in the European Union?

David Schäfer 

This article tries to answer the question whether the role of Germany in the debt crisis as a hegemon in the European Union is being described accurately. The conceptual framework of this analysis is based on the defin­ition of hegemony by Heinrich Triepel. According to that Germany is a hegemon if it possesses predom­inant economic resources – as measured by EU associates –, shows willingness to assume a leading role and is accepted as leading power among the other states. The Fiscal Compact, thereby, serves as a case study. Its formation and content are analysed by the positions of the member states Germany, France, Spain and Ireland. The author concludes that Germany possesses the economic means to be a hegemon. However, doubts on its willingness to lead and its accep­tance among several member states remain. The Fiscal Compact reflects almost as many German as French prefer­ences.

The EU and the Arctic: Following up Words with Action?

Jana Windwehr

The Arctic is becoming increas­ingly important in terms of energy, security and climate issues on a global scale. Following the coastal states of the Arctic Ocean, which have presented Arctic strategies in recent years, the European Union has started devel­oping an Arctic policy. While more or less consistent guiding principles have been estab­lished via several papers and commu­ni­ca­tions, these have been backed up with concrete instruc­tions and practical action to a diverging and an overall rather low degree. As a non-coastal state, the European Union will have to rely on its membership in relevant inter­na­tional and regional organ­i­sa­tions, instru­ments such as the Northern Dimension and cooper­ation with member and partner states, also in the future.


European Union Foreign Policy in the 21st Century: Vision, Ambition and Reality

Martin Schulz 

Current and recent foreign policy challenges show that the European Union is far from acting as the global player it is supposed to be. On the contrary: Europe’s indeci­siveness over Syria, its inability to agree on a common line on the conflict in Libya as well as its slow reaction to the coup in Mali illus­trate that EU member states today are still more concerned with their national interests than with the wider European good. However, as the EU is losing in economic, and hence political, leverage on the inter­na­tional scene. Compared to emerging economies such as China, Europe can no longer afford to stand on the sidelines. Europe has to build on its ‘soft power’ as well as on the wide range of expertise of its member states in order to gain influence on the world stage.


Ann-Sophie Gast

Erste Jahrestagung des Deutsch-Portugiesischen Forums: Perspek­tiven einer starken Partner­schaft in schweren Zeiten


Marnie Schoeller

Die EU als strate­gischer Akteur? Die Außen­politik der EU auf dem Prüfstand